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1 MENTIONING or fun-related behavioral procedures that operate independently of goals (Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Bargh, Chen, & Burrows, 1996; Dijksterhuis, Bargh, & Miedema, 2000; Dijksterhuis et al., 1998; Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg, >>1998<<; for a summary, see Dijksterhuis & Bargh, 2001).
2 MENTIONING Finding priming sensitive activation in the prefrontal cortex is in line with the behavioural results showing that priming can influence higher order concepts (Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg, >>1998<<).
3 MENTIONING It has also been shown that priming for concepts associated with being clever, such as ‘Professor’, influences intellectual performance as tested on a quiz (Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg, >>1998<<). Priming can either lead to activation of motivational goal concepts, or simple semantic constructs. In tasks where participants are primed with neutral nouns, such as ‘bottle’, which results in a faster response time (RT) to related
4 MENTIONING It is unknown whether goal priming acts by influencing a separate goal representation, as opposed to simply influencing areas involved in task performance (Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg, >>1998<<; Markus, 1999).
5 MENTIONING Additionally, a variety of trait (Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg, >>1998<<; Dijksterhuis et al., 1998), mindset (Sassenberg & Moskowitz, 2005), and motivational (Friedman and Förster, 2000; 2001) primes influence mental performance and behavior.
6 MENTIONING In stereotype activation studies, participants typically have to imagine belonging to a certain stereotype (e.g., a professor; see, e.g., Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg, >>1998<<), and the instructions used for this are comparable with the survival instruction.
7 MENTIONING To begin with, previous stereotype activation studies have demonstrated that these stereotypes have robust memory effects (Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg, >>1998<<; Levy, 1996).
8 MENTIONING distinguish habit-related automaticity from other forms of automaticity, such as behaviour prompted by implementation intentions (i.e. one-off, pre-planned and highly specific cue-responses [46]), or ideomotor or primed behaviours [47,>>48<<]. Items relating to repetition history may be needed to distinguish habit from non-habit-related automaticity, and for these reasons, we term our measure an index of automaticity, rather than a measure of habit per se.
9 MENTIONING For example, exposure to ibuprofen could have primed the concept of analgesia (e.g., [42], [>>43<<]) or activated the goal of avoiding or tolerating pain [44], [45].
10 MENTIONING It is noteworthy that the types of priming manipulation reported previously to be successful have varied quite widely in their format; for example, while Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg's participants [>>3<<] considered the attributes of the prime target for several minutes, LeBoeuf and Estes [22] observed a priming effect with the standard attribute-listing methodology when participants merely listed 3 attributes, which may have taken only a
11 MENTIONING Effect sizes in the original experiments reported by Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg [>>3<<] ranged from 0.83 to 1.35.
12 MENTIONING Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg's [>>3<<] initial report included 4 experiments and their later report ([14], Experiment 2) added a further replication.
13 MENTIONING research, is Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg's report that individuals answer more general knowledge questions correctly after being asked to think about the attributes of a professor than they do after thinking about soccer hooligans [>>3<<].
14 MENTIONING The basic intelligence priming obtained by Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg [>>3<<] is an assimilation effect in the sense that the participant's behavior purportedly comes to resemble that of the prime (professors behave intelligently, soccer hooligans unintelligently).
15 MENTIONING Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg's [>>3<<] task involved a between-subjects manipulation. Some participants spent a few minutes describing the attributes of a typical professor, whereas others described those of a typical soccer hooligan.
16 MENTIONING Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg [>>3<<] suggested that the priming effect occurs because activation of the stereotype of intelligence (in the professor compared to the soccer hooligan condition) leads participants to use more intelligent strategies for answering the questions,
17 MENTIONING In Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg's [>>3<<] procedure and in a subsequent replication by the same authors [14] participants simply wrote down some of the attributes of a typical professor or soccer hooligan before taking the knowledge test.
18 MENTIONING On the basis of Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg's [>>3<<] results, extending the priming stage should enhance its effect.
19 MENTIONING The priming procedure was therefore identical to that employed by Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg [>>3<<]. In Experiment 3 the priming procedure was the same as that in Experiment 2 but extended to 9 min, the Raven's questions were replaced with general knowledge questions, and no questions were presented prior to the priming phase, meaning
20 MENTIONING Raven's questions were replaced with general knowledge questions, and no questions were presented prior to the priming phase, meaning that the experiment was a close replication of the method used by Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg ([>>3<<], Experiment 4), ([14], Experiment 2), and Hansen and Wänke ([16], Experiment 2).
21 MENTIONING Note that these experiments employed sample sizes comparable to or larger than those employed by Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg [>>3<<]: their groups varied in size from approximately 10 to 32. Experiment 4 included more participants (50 per group) than any of the published studies.
22 MENTIONING a thorough literature review to identify all priming studies published subsequent to the original reports of Dijksterhuis and colleagues which obtained an influence of stereotype activation on some measure of knowledge or intelligence [>>3<<], [14], [18]. One study [16] employed the same task and procedure as Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg [3] with the exception that the primes were professors and cleaning ladies, while another used professor and soccer player primes [19].
23 MENTIONING One study [16] employed the same task and procedure as Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg [>>3<<] with the exception that the primes were professors and cleaning ladies, while another used professor and soccer player primes [19].
24 MENTIONING more likely to walk slower down the corridor than they would otherwise do (Bargh et al., 1996), or when primed with associations to “professor” people become more likely to score highly on a quiz (Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg, >>1998<<). Priming refers to the passive and unobtrusive activation of relevant mental representations by environmental stimuli such that people are not and do not become aware of the influence exerted by those stimuli (Bargh and Chartrand, 2000).
25 MENTIONING Interestingly, Shanks et al. [17] recently presented a series of nine studies examining a closely related form of priming reported by Dijksterhuis and van Knippenburg [>>39<<] whereby people are led to perform better on a general knowledge task after being primed by thinking about the stereotype of the college professor.
26 MENTIONING Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg [>>20<<] found that when participants were primed with the social concept “professor”, they performed better in a general knowledge task.
27 MENTIONING of these studies is mixed, showing failure [21–22] and success, described by Stroebe, and Strack [23] as successful conceptual replications of the study of Bargh et al [19] [24–28], and the study of Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg [>>20<<] [29–34].
28 CONFIRMING unrelated behavior to be consistent with that construct (such as higher test scores) without raising conscious awareness of a link between the two (Bargh, Chen, & Burrows, 1996; Bargh & Ferguson, 2000; Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg, >>1998<<). A distinct but related effect is goal priming, in which a goal, the representation of a desired end-state, is activated and results in behavior consistent with goal attainment.
29 MENTIONING dishonesty might be responsible for the observed effect: other stereotypes were shown to influence behavior—for example priming of the “hooligan” stereotype decreases performance in a trivia quiz (Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg, >>1998<<). Second, it is not even necessary that the observed difference in cheating had been caused by the priming of the professional identity.
30 MENTIONING One possible explanation of the effect is that when a stereotype that one is inferior in a given task is primed, one is not motivated to perform well (Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg, >>1998<<). Similarly, bankers might not be motivated to engage in “costly” honest behavior, when they would regardless be perceived as dishonest by others.
31 MENTIONING priming, some behavioral response such as voting intentions (Hassin, Ferguson, Shidlovski, & Gross, 2007), walking speed (Bargh, Chen, & Burrows, 1996), or answering general knowledge questions (Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg, >>1998<<) is influenced by a subtle cue without participants being aware of this influence; research on implicit moral judgments, emotions, and attitudes proposes that behaviors in each of these domains can again be influenced by environmental
32 MENTIONING The Scrambled Sentence Test (Srull & Wyer, 1979), a frequently used measure in priming literature (Bargh et al., 1996; Branaghan & Gray, 2010; Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg, >>1998<<; Roberts & Gettman, 2004), was used as the priming manipulation. It was presented as a test of language ability to shield participants from the true intent of priming conceptual frameworks.
33 MENTIONING It has been shown that duration of priming may influence its effect (e.g., Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg, >>1998<<). However, we assumed that differences in the duration of priming between individual participants in our experiments would not be so large as to greatly influence the behavioral effect. Clearly, future research can also check the

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